In my previous blog in this series of blogs I posed the question: why do we behave the way that we do? then I drew a picture (a model) of the steps in our behavioural process. In this blog, I write about the ideas (theory) that make sense of that picture (adapted from Albert Bandura in his 1986 book called Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory).

As an aside: I met Albert Bandura in the early 1990s. A giant of a man – physically and intellectually – already getting on in years. He gave a riveting speech about disengagement tactics (more about that in the third blog in this series) and then sat down with us doctoral students and was just ever so charming and interested in what each of us was studying. I confess that it did make reading (or should I write, ‘understanding’) his very complex book that much more bearable!

Bandura claims that the cause of our actions/thinking/reactions to the world is an interaction between behaviour, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events. In other words, we can direct our own behaviour and influence the external environment but the external environment also influences us and the outcome of our behaviour – this is summarised in the figure below.

To explain how all this ‘influencing’ stuff happens, Bandura says that we direct our own behaviour and have influence over the environment by using the ‘capabilities’ that we are born with:

  • Symbolising capability – we can think in symbols and we can share symbols. For example, words in a language are symbols (or representation) of some thing which we can share with others who understand the language. By using and understanding symbols, we can store, process and transform our experiences into something (called a cognitive model) that can help us think through decision-making processes or problems. In language, we further translate the word symbols we speak into ‘written’ symbols that we transfer to people without having to use sound.
  • Forethought capability – with this capability we can think ahead, weighing up consequences. We often use our capacity to symbolise to do so. A very obvious use of forethought is when planning the next move in a chess game, but any planning activity needs the use of the forethought capability.
  • Vicarious capability – we can learn a behaviour by observing the actions of others and the consequences of those actions. We don’t have to learn something by trial and error. Getting an education at school is about using this capacity. This capacity means that we don’t have to learn things by self-trial and error.
  • Self-reflective capability – this is the capacity to evaluate our own behaviour and make adjustments according to the consequences of the behaviour and how it agrees with our own and/or with society’s standards.
  • Self-regulatory capability – we use a combination of personal and social standards to evaluate our own behaviour and change it as necessary (more on this in the third blog of this series).

These five capabilities let us learn from the experiences of others (vicarious learning), and use our own experiences and those vicariously learnt to anticipate (forethought) what might happen as a consequence of a contemplated action. It is our self-reflective capabilities that help us to evaluate the impact of an action on others and on our selves, and then to use that evaluation to guide our future behaviour.

BUT, capabilities don’t always work well;  all sorts of things can go wrong with capabilities: they may not be developed; they may be incapable of being developed; or they may be developed in a particular way.

I’ll give examples of difficulties with development below but now a little sidestep: When we are uncertain about how we should behave or if we can do the right thing – in other words, when we have low  self-efficacy – or we don’t think we are in charge of our own behaviour – in scientific jargon this is called ‘low agency’ – we either don’t go ahead with the action or we look for help. Sometimes, a person gets the help of (or is directed by) an individual or an institution. The person who we look to is called a ‘proxy models’. In the case of an assisting group, the term is ‘collective agency’. For this series of blogs, I’ll collapse these two categories into proxy models for each of description in these blogs.

There’s an interesting interaction between proxy models and self-efficacy: we are choosy about who we look to as proxy models. Perhaps you’ve noticed situations like a child taking on the behaviour of another child rather than the behaviour of an adult; or people who have a medical problem rejecting the advice of a doctor but accepting the advice of a neighbour; or a farmer taking advice from another farmer rather than an academic ‘expert’.  There are myriad factors influencing who we accept as proxy models, including social class, financial means, gender, education, age, mobility, culture and religion. These factors boil down to a judgement we make based on our self-efficacy: “can I do (or think) that?” If the modelled behaviour is too challenging, we’ll look for a model that exhibits behaviours and/or lessons that are closer to what we believe we can achieve.

Now, back to the issue of why capabilities may not work well:

  • Our symbolising capability might not be developed for us to face a particular challenge, for example, we don’t speak the language. Another example is the symbolising capability divide between Baby Boomers and Millenials – Baby Boomers struggle to master the symbols of modern technology so glibly absorbed by the Millennials.
  • Our forethought capability may not work well because we don’t have relevant knowledge or we haven’t had relevant past experiences. Another reason might be that we have poor symbolising capacity. Forethought can also be influenced by the group or institution we belong to (collective agency issue), which might determine ‘how’ we need to behave – this is especially the case if we have low self-efficacy.
  • In order to learn vicariously, a person needs to be able to
    • pay attention to the lessons
    • retain lessons
    • reproduce lessons (this sometimes means having motor skills and/or thought process to do so – refer to my example of Baby Boomers and Millennials above), and
    • must have the motivation to learn

Self-efficacy has a significant influence on whether such learning occurs. If self-efficacy is low in any of the four needs for vicarious learning, then the person is unlikely to make much of a fist of learning. If there is no useful proxy model,  then the person is in an even worse situation.

  • Self-reflection, of course, needs the other capacities to be in good working order.

The capacity to self-regulate depends upon the working order of other capacities. I’m going to talk more about self-regulation in the third blog in this series.

If you are trying to influence behaviour – your own or other people’s – you need to examine which of the capacities are going to get in the way of achieving a good outcome – as well as examining the influences of agency and self-efficacy. In the first blog in this series of blogs, I noted that merely providing information to people is a poor way of influencing behaviour. I hope now you can see why. Printing or lecturing on facts and figures or explanations is, actually, only providing ‘data’ and probably ‘meaningless data’ to people who are not in the frame of mind to accept it as ‘information’. For data to become information, it needs to jump the hurdles of symbolising, vicarious learning, agency and self-efficacy.

In the next blog, as I’ve already flagged, I am going to return to the question of why power corrupts. This has to do with our self-regulation capacity and how we can, through our own thought processes, do away with those standards that make us behave in socially responsible ways – and lead us down the slippery slope towards corruption.

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My dearest Pedro,

I hope this note finds you well.

I was in your country scarcely eight months and yet nothing in my life has left such a profound impact. The artistry and music of your people, the way you live your lives on your most forbidding island, and the knowledge that it is also inhabited by unique others, fills my mind constantly.

This note comes to you via a close and trusted friend. I would be most humbly grateful if you would write me a little of the history of Si’Empra. My friend will convey your writings to me. I will not pre-empt your words by asking questions now but hope that you will unfold for me a context into which I can place news from your land.

I promise you that your words will never be read by other than myself, nor will they be repeated by me.

I remain your friend.

Augustine (Fr)

July 2011

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Dear Father Augustine

You are right that it is important for me to guard my words. I will tell you briefly something of Si’Empra’s history and how we have come to our unhappy and deteriorating circumstance.

Our history is complex and must start with ancient songlines that tell of the landing of people on this island. They found the island inhabited by Cryptals – those creatures you have heard rumoured of in your time with us. I know only a little about Cryptals (indeed I doubt anyone knows much about them, they are so other than we are!). Cryptals are able to use scent – perhaps we would characterise such scent as pheromones, though this has never been studied – to manipulate the behaviour of creatures on Si’Empra. We call the scent mylin or Cryptal poison. In general, we talk of mylin as if it has only one characteristic, and that it is highly poisonous; but, in fact, in small doses, it can strengthen Si’Emprans, especially Crystal Makers. I suspect that Cryptals can also produce many forms of mylin.

Cryptals inhabit the deep earth of Si’Empra and travel the underworld through an intricate weave of tunnels. One of the creatures, called the White’One, sings almost constantly. The song appears to coordinate the movement of other Cryptals. There is also talk of a Black’One, but information of this creature is hazy indeed. Remarkable as you may find what I have already told you about the Cryptals, know that they can also manipulate the very earth. You are aware that Si’Empra is on a part of a fault line between Earth’s tectonic plates – I believe it is called the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. The earth is highly volatile along this line and, perhaps in normal circumstances, the island would not exist at all. However, Cryptals know how to release pressure in rock and the belief of many of us is the island owes its very existence to such Cryptal capacity.

When the first people came to the island there were not only Cryptals but also huge birds, which we call glasaurs. These birds seem to have disappeared soon after the coming of people. I am not sure why, though I suspect that Cryptals created the birds (I think they are mutated versions of a bird that lives beyond the forbidding Barrier Cliffs that are on the very far side of our island) and found no more use for them after people arrived. Recently, another such bird has come among us again – you have heard of this.

Cryptals and the first peoples, over the thousands of years that followed, came to an arrangement. I should tell you also that Cryptals have another feature: they have long and thick fur, which the first people learnt how to weave into cloth. At some stage, the people also discovered that, with sufficient heat and other treatments, they could manipulate the fur to make a sort of glass, which we call crystal. As you will have discerned, this crystal is highly prized – though we have little access to it now. There was something else that the people discovered they could do with the crystal: that is, with further work they could cause the crystal to echo certain sounds. This special crystal is called virigin. But the craft of making virigins is lost.

The first people on Si’Empra we call the Crystal Makers. I believe that at the time of their coming, Si’Empra’s climate was relatively benign but gradually changed to become increasingly hostile and cold. Crystal Makers gradually retreated into the underground world of the Cryptals. It was onto this cold, windswept island that another peoples were shipwrecked. These were my ancestors. Of the origin of these people, I know very little. (As an aside, I think that my ancestors also introduced goats to Si’Empra – though, as you and I have already established, our domesticated chickens are native).

The newcomers were welcomed by the Crystal Makers. Over time, Crystal Makers no longer left their underground dwellings but provided Sky Seekers with cloth and crystal in exchange for food and other aboveground necessities. The homes of Sky Seekers were also kept warm by hot geothermal waters that Cryptals channelled through the flooring – you have seen these structures in Si'Em City though the warming is currently carried out by the use of diesel-fuelled generators.

Sky Seekers and Crystal Makers have different social systems as well as language. Crystal Makers divide their people into guilds. Each guild is headed by a Guild Master. The code by which the Crystal Makers operate is called The Order. It is strictly enforced by the Guild Masters. Sky Seekers, as you have learnt, are governed by a council, called the Lianthem, which is traditionally drawn from a group of ruling families. The head of the Lianthem is our Ülrügh, notionally appointed by the Lianthem. However, it has long been accepted that each Ülrügh chooses one of his or her children to be his or her successor.

You have seen how forbidding our shoreline is and it is, perhaps, why Si’Empra has long been isolated. Nevertheless, a group of seal hunters did land on our island some eight decades ago. This event began a process that fundamentally changed a way of life on Si’Empra that had existed for hundreds of years.

You have remarked on our modernisation achievements. I think I implied, in our conversations, that all Si’Emprans initially did well under the rule of Ülrügh Devi. The Crystal Makers were our allies, providing unique Cryptal cloth and crystal that was much sought-after by foreigners (these things still are!). Such alliance, however, did not last. Crystal Makers do not believe in change and when they perceived that Sky Seekers were changing their lives as a result of association with foreigners, Crystal Makers ceased to provide cloth and crystal. The Lianthem discovered that outsiders were also keen to purchase the gemstones found on this island. With the help of a Chinese family (you have met a member of this family, Cheng Yi), Sky Seekers developed a gemstone business. Unfortunately, mining gemstones did not meet with the approval of Cryptals. The Crystal Makers warned against it and, when the Sky Seekers refused to listen, the Cryptals retaliated by denying Sky Seekers access to the geothermal energy the island has in abundance.

Ülrügh Devi, in spite of his many brilliant insights, was not one to be coerced into a course of action when he had set his mind on another. With confidence that Sky Seekers could continue to fend for themselves without the help of Crystal Makers and Cryptals, he decided to remove our belowground dwellers. Among the Crystal Makers who survived the Ülrügh’s purge, this purge is known as ‘The Destruction’. There were those on the Lianthem who disagreed with Ülrügh Devi. When he turned on them also, they fled. The hunt of Crystal Makers and Cryptals continues even today, the current Ülrügh having set up a special group to do it and with otherwise minimal involvement of others on the Lianthem – though a majority approve or are disinterested.

Ülrügh Devi was succeeded by his son, Briani.

We are now into events that occur in my lifetime.

Ülrügh Briani was much manipulated by some on the Lianthem who profited greatly from modernisation. Ülrügh Devi’s leap of faith that Sky Seekers could manage on Si’Empra without the aid of Crystal Makers and Cryptals is not working as well as planned. Si’Empra constantly struggles to buy and produce all that is needed – or perhaps the shortages many Si’Empran’s suffer is because some of the ruling families have grown used to a lavish lifestyles and the sharing that used to be part of Sky Seeker tradition has thinned.

Ülrügh Briani married Lian Thea, a twin sister of our current Chancellor, Lian Chithra. She bore the Ülrügh a son – you have met Ülrügh Redel. Rumour has it that Lian Thea was unkind to her child. She died when he was but a young boy – perhaps four or five. After fourteen or fifteen years, the Ülrügh took a new wife. A very young bride, only a few years older than the Ülrügh’s son. Nevertheless, there seemed to be real love between Constance – the bride’s name – and Ülrügh Briani. Constance gave birth to Ellen, who became much beloved by her father and many Si’Emprans and all indications were that Ülrügh Devi intended her to be his successor. The Ülrügh’s unexpected death, however, saw Redel become Ülrügh.

Forgive me. What followed after Ülrügh Briani’s death is extremely painful to me. While I have entrusted to you the above version of Si’Empra’s history (not one that is safe to discuss nowadays), I find myself unable to continue. Suffice to say that our new Ülrügh abused his sister but denied the abuse – and Ellen has never confirmed or denied. In an effort to safeguard her daughter, Constance, agreed to become his wife. She bore him a daughter, who is called Chrystal – you have met the child. Constance died soon after childbirth.

Perhaps you understand Si’Empra better now. We have access to the most wonderful things that the outer world can provide – we have Internet access, mobile phones, electric lighting, lifts to save our legs from stairs, access to word class education etc etc. Even cars we have on Si’Empra, (though there are few roads on which to drive them – one to Sinthen and one to the mines, and a minor one up to the Serai). The cars are all but useless but the helicopters potentially more useful – though at present they are put to deadly use. Our access to the ‘wonderful things’ is, however, limited. Indeed, beyond Si’Em City and Baltha, people live in poverty.

I hope you stay well and I look forward to many more years of correspondence with you on philosophical exercises of the mind that need not be burdened by the raw emotion of day-to-day melancholy.

With kind regards,

Pedro

PS: If I were to tell you a fuller story of how Si’Empra is today, I would begin with an event about two years ago that caused Lian Ellen to flee Si’Em City and not return.

 

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Glossary of names

 

Acolyte SythelAcolyte of the Guild of Weaving who helped Sami and Tharnie
adjutantRedel's special guard
AnnePartner of Lian Dane
AuchustGuild Master of Construction: short hair in spikes on his head
BacharWeb Cleaner child with good voice
BrianiGrandfather of Ellen
ChithraChancellor
ChrisWeb Cleaner/harvester/looks after Muther over summer
Cillapregnant Crystal Maker
ConstanceEllen's mother
Cryptalscreatures of the deep
DeviRedel's father
DevoutsRedel's priest aids
Dr Thomas DohertySurgeon that Lian Shivay communicates with to help Ellen
Dr ThrakeOrthopaedic surgeon
EllenDaughter of Briani and Constance
ElthanEllen's grandmother
Ethanson of Sathun
FrancisA huge muscled black man from South Africa
GreciaDoctor at Sinthen and Pedro's old home
GrettaLives beyond the Barrier Cliffs
Heiniepartner of Thyrol
Ian SewellOne of Norm Tucker's crew
Jessorphan girl Sathun found and now wife of José
JoeOne of Norm Tucker's crew: a tall thin man
JonAdministrative aid to Chithra
JoosthinCrystal Guild Master
Joseeldest son of Sathun
JosieWeb Cleaner child with the burnt face
KatherinaEllen's devoted carer
LaraAcolyte in Guild of weaving
Lian AchtonMusic teacher
Lian CecilTax Collector
Lian DaneOwner of most of the hothouses, clear blue eyes, balding pate, and trim fram
Lian DiánnéIn charge of the stores
Lian IsoldeAchton's wife
Lian JulianHas much real estate, arthritis, nephew to Devi, cheerful
Lian PethriePhysician
Lian ShivayDoctor at Baltha hospital
Lian SienneOne of the coup leaders
Lian TheonOne of the coup leaders and father of Thull
Lian ThessaTakes over Marthin's role
Lian ThobiasChief Engineer
LumanA favourite grandson of Lian Julian and good at Chatham
MarthinHusband of Mary
Marypartner of Marthin
MutherSi'Empra Mayal -living with Grecia
PedroElthan's partner, Ellen's grandfather
Phanlives with Grecia
Phietnurse helping Greçia
Rangera section of the adjutants who are involved with the hunt
Redelbrother of Ellen and Ulrugh
Richardson of Muther
Rosaa glasaur - a very large bird, one of a kind, that Ellen rides
SamiAcolyte of Tharnie - who is on crutches
SaraGuild Master of Weaving: small woman, chews her nails, youngest member
SaraGuild Master of Weaving
SathunThe son of Sienne the rebel
SiraAccompanied Thanin to meet Ellen
ThaliaThe child in Fadil Village that Redel murdered
ThamNurse helping Greçia
ThaninGuild Master of Design
TharylWeb Cleaner in charge of one of the food storage areas
The Black OneLarge, dark brown eyes
The Othersthose living beyond the Barrier Cliffs
The OvercomeThose addicted beyond reason to mylin
TheresaSathun's oldest daughter
ThilAcolyte of the Guild of Memory and Gate Master of Illiath
ThimonWeb Cleaner/harvester/Elthan's harvester deputy
ThomaliasDaughter of Thom - the girl in Fadil Village
ThrenFriend of Joosthin now become part of the Overcome
ThrevorGuild Master of Memory: one of the guilds of the Crystal Makers; old, stooped and the most powerful
ThrevorGuild Master of Memory slim male of middle age with pale yellow braided hair
ThullSathun's father, recently deceased
Thyrolpartner of Heinie
White'OneSinging Cryptal
WhypoonMaster who taught Elthan how to clean webs
ZaraAcolyte of Joosthin

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Glossary of words

 

Brimaldplants on the Chess River ravine
Hawkberry plantplants on the walk: A minty smell with a touch of rose
Jalineplants on the Chess River ravine
Lalloonsleek beast, the size of a small dog. It was a lalloon; a pretty creature with rounded, furry ears, a narrow snout tipped by a black nose and long, soft, reddish-brown fur that was prized by Sky Seekers for lining the hoods of winter coats. The creature was a hunter and scavenger, sneaky, adept at hiding and solitary.
LayamleSi'Em City's vast, communal chamber,
Lianequivalent to 'Lady'
Lianthemequivalent to the ruling council
Lithilian berriesspecial berries for making a kind of wine
Pendleweedplants on the Chess River ravine
samiraa musical instrument
schathemSi'Empran traditional climbing game
Seraiequivalent to 'palace'
Si'Empra MayalSongbird of Si'Empra
Si'Empra TheolelThe Jewel of Si'Empra
solnishunting animal
Sweensbeeplants on the Chess River ravine
Thordilonesa musical instrument

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Glossary of places

 

Balthaon the other side of the bridge
Barthgunman accompanying Lian Cecil in Fadil Villae
Charn RiverTo the east of the Sith River
Fadil Villagescene of tax collector incident
GhuyHeadman of Fadil Village
IlliathBelowground Crystmaker city
Northern LandsWhere the summer dwelling is for Richard and Muther
Overshot Gorgeseparates the Si'Em bluff from the rest of the island
River OrbEast of Thuls Refuge which has become easier to cross as a result of the earthquake and the route Ellen advised Richard et al to take
Si'Em Bluffinto which Si'Em City is built
Si'Em Citymain city on the island
Si'Empraname of island
Sinthenlinked to Baltha by a road
Sith ChamberA huge cave used by the harvesters
Sith CliffsThe first barrier above the Sith River on the way to the Northern Lands
Sith RiverTo the west of the Charn River
The Barrier Cliffsseparate the place The Others live from the rest of Si'Empra
The Lost Cityon top of the Barrier Cliffs
The Seraipalace - administration centre
The ShoalsRubbish dump and where Sky Seeker dead are left
TrebiathBelowground Crystmaker city

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Bookfunnel is an e-book delivery platform designed to make downloading to any e-reader platform easy. You’ll buy the book from Payhip which will ask for your email address to send the ebook. You’ll be sent an email to download from Payhip but if you wait a few moments, Bookfunnel will also send you an email and will make the download process easier.

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